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THE COLLECTION OF MRS. C. LOCKHART McKELVY 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Toledo Museum of Art 



http://archive.org/details/collectionofmrscOOtole 



The Collection of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy 



Publication of this catalogue is made possible 

by contributions from the many friends of Mrs. C. Lockhart McKelvy. 

The Museum is grateful for their support of this 

permanent record of her generosity. 



THE COLLECTION OF 



MRS. C. LOCKHART McKELVY 



THE TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART 

Founded by 
Edward Drummond Libbey 



I964 




HENRI MATISSE 
Dancer Resting 



MRS. C. LOCKHART McKELVY 



Margaret Gosline McKelvy was one of Toledo's great bene- 
factors, yet she was so modest and so reticent that few knew all 
that she did for the community in which she lived. Her joyous and 
lively interest in the arts and people expressed itself in two ways 
that profoundly affected this community through its Art Museum. 

Her father, William A. Gosline, Jr., who was President of the 
Museum from 1934 to 1947, had taught her to love and collect 
art. She had the courage to acquire only works of art she liked and 
always considered that one day her collection would be the heritage 
of all of us in this community. Her acquisitions were planned to 
supplement the collections of the Art Museum yet they remain a 
very personal expression of her strong and sure taste. Her collec- 
tion will strengthen and enrich the Art Museum, giving pleasure 
to all who visit it. 

Mrs. McKelvy liked young people and helped many to obtain 
the education necessary to pursue a useful life. In the arts she 
gave scholarships to promising young artists, so that they could 
become technically proficient. Many became art teachers, and are 
now benefiting countless children through their teaching. With 
typical modesty, Mrs. McKelvy gave these scholarships either 
through the Museum, as Gosline Scholarships, honoring her father, 
or through the Toledo Board of Education, as Gilmartin Scholar- 
ships, honoring Elizabeth C. Gilmartin, former Supervisor of Art 
Education in Toledo's public schools. Few knew the name of 
the donor. 

Mrs. McKelvy was a lifelong resident of our community, 
served on the boards of many charitable institutions in addition to 
being a Trustee of this Museum. The delightful and personal col- 
lection of works of art given to the Museum by Mrs. McKelvy is 
recorded in this catalogue. Her pictures and objects will give pleas- 
ure to many. Her generous and lighthearted spirit will live on in 
these works of art and in the hearts of all those whom she helped, 
and who are now helping others to learn from and enjoy the arts. 

Otto Wittmann, Director 



FRANCOIS BOUCHER 

(1703-1770) 



Bouchers delicate style of painting especially suited the 
18th century taste for rustic or pastoral scenes. To these 
landscapes he added a keen appreciation for the frivolous 
pastimes of his aristocratic patrons, among whom was 
Madame de Pompadour. For many prominent French artists, 
study in Italy was desirable and important. Boucher was 
twenty-four years of age when he traveled to Italy, remaining 
there for four years. Later in his lifetime, he became First 
Painter to Louis XV and President of the Academy. By the 
mid- 18th century, the pleasure-seeking French court sought 
to enjoy a refined, restrained nature in which they could 
participate as pampered milkmaids or fishermen. Boucher's 
subjects, therefore, were obvious and superficial, 
dictated by the Rococo taste of the times. 

THE FOOTBRIDGE 

Oil on canvas. 19 7 /s x 24 inches. 
Signed lower left: f. Boucher/ 1760. 

Paintings of such small size were desirable in the intimate 
salons and boudoirs of the Rococo period. The pastoral 
landscapes of Boucher, peopled with country folk in the sun, 
were treated as pleasant stage settings that often employed 
the countryside near the junction of the Seine and Marne 
Rivers. This attractive area, only three miles from the heart of 
Paris and adjoining the Bois de Boulogne, appealed to 
Boucher for its picturesqueness. A preparatory drawing for 
this painting appeared in the Georges Bougarel sale 
(Catalogue du Cabinet de Dessins du XVllle Siecle. Hotel 
Drouot, Paris, June 15-16, 1922, p. 9, no. 12). 

EX-COLLECTION 

Chateau de Beauregard, Seyssinet, near Grenoble, France, from the early 
19th century to 1957. 
Gift, 1957. 



The catalogue entries were prepared 
by Millard F. Rogers, Jr. 
and the catalogue was designed 
by Richard F. Dahn. 



HUBERT ROBERT 

(1733-1808) 

In 1 8th century France the riches of the monarchy were 
equaled by the abundant talents of the artists. Hubert Robert, 
a painter who was influenced by Italian scenes and the 
style of his great contemporary, Fragonard, painted and lived 
in Italy for eleven years (1754-1765). He lived through 
two reigns of French kings and into the period of the 
Napoleonic upheaval. Robert generally confined his subjects 
to dramatic landscapes or extensive architectural views. 
Ruined castles, torrential streams, and the remains of past 
civilizations intrigued him throughout his long career. As a 
member of the prestigious Academy, Robert is also noted 
as one of the keepers of paintings owned by Louis XVI. 
He also served as curator of the Musee du Louvre. 

THE PONTE LUCANO AND THE TOMB OF THE PLAUTn 

Oil on canvas. 32V4 x 25 V2 inches. 
Signed lower right: H. Robert/ 1795 (4?) 

In addition to their attractiveness, Robert's paintings serve 
as major records of the ancient monuments of Rome and 
its environs. Robert intended this painting to be en suite with 
at least three other views of Rome and Tivoli. They remained 
together until 1944. The painting depicts the Aniene River 
rushing under the five-arched Ponte Lucano near Bagni 
di Tivoli, a spa between Rome and Tivoli. This Roman bridge 
was named for Lucanus Plautius, and it was rebuilt several 
times between the 15th and the 19th centuries. Just beyond the 
bridge and crowning the hilltop is the circular tomb of the 
Plautii, a family burial structure dating from the Augustan 
period (27 B.C.-14 A.D.). The painting was titled, 
erroneously, until recently: Cascades of Rome, 
Castle of Ponte Lugano. 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Comte Legendre d'Onzembray, Chateau de Villemereuil, Aube (dealer's 

information, but painting does not identify with any Robert in the sale, 

March 13, 1868). 

Etienne Marie Antoine Champion, Comte de Nansouty, Paris. 

Comte de la Beraudiere, Paris (until 1885?). 

Edouard Jonas, Paris, 1928. 

Mrs. Joseph D. Heine, New York, to 1944. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Collection of Mrs. Joseph D. Heine, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 
November 25, 1944, no. 257. 

EXHIBITIONS 

The Spirit of Modern France, 1745-1946, Toledo Museum of Art 
and Art Gallery of Toronto, November 1946-February 1947, no. 4. 
Hubert Robert, 1733-1808, Paintings and Drawings, Vassar College Art 
Gallery, Poughkeepsie, New York, October 9-November 11, 1962, no. 11. 
Gift, 1945. 



CONSTANTIN GUYS 

(1802-1892) 



As perceptive chronicler of Victorian life in London's Hyde 
Park, a cavalry charge in the Crimean War, or French 
dancers and their escorts, no draftsman of the 19th century 
exceeded Constantin Guys. He was born in Holland, but 
spent most of his life traveling from country to country 
seeking new subjects for his facile pen and pencil. With Byron 
he fought in the Greek War of Independence, and before 
1850 he became an artist for the Illustrated London News. 
His admirers included Baudelaire, the De Goncourt brothers, 
and Manet. He was considered a reporter, and his skill 
as a draftsman was only appreciated by later collectors. 

DANCERS. About 1860-1870. 

Ink and wash on paper. IOV2 x 15 inches. 

Throughout most of the 19th century, but especially 
during the gay and prosperous years of the Second Empire 
and the enlightened rule of Napoleon III, Guys depicted 
the fashions of Europe, its courtesans, soldiers, and ladies 
in crinoline parading through the boulevards of Paris. 
He recorded this age exclusively as a draftsman in pencil, 
ink, and wash. His drawings of woman and her environment, 
the popular subject of Guys' draftsmanship, graphically 
illustrate the world depicted in the writings of 
Flaubert, Baudelaire, and Zola. 

Gift, 1950. 



EDOUARD MANET 

(1832-1883) 



Following six years of study in Couture's studio, Manet 
visited Europe's leading museums. His interest in the 
Venetian painters, Velasquez, and Hals began early in his 
career and continued throughout it. Manet considered his 
art a continuation of the masters before him, and he never 
regarded himself as a revolutionary. In the mid- 19th 
century, the Salon exhibitions implied official endorsement 
and, hence, success. Manet was championed by Delacroix, 
Antonin Proust, and Baudelaire, but he was not accepted in 
the Salon until 1861. In 1865 the public vilified Olympia, 
perhaps his most famous painting, for its excessive 
realism and unusual subject. After 1870 he explored the 
Impressionist technique, but generally preferred the use of 
light and dark colors, juxtaposed without much half-tone 
shading. Only in later life did Manet receive 
12 the honors due him. 

PORTRAIT OF MADAME EDOUARD MANET. 1878. 
Pastel on paper. 21 3 /s x 15 ¥2 inches. 

Manet did not work in pastel until about 1878. After this 
date this technique occupied more and more of his 
attention. He treated the use of pastel on paper in a painterly 
fashion, preferring broad effects to detailed, linear ones. 
In 1863, Manet married Suzanne Leenhof (1830-1906), a 
woman who first came to the Manet household as a 
piano instructor in 1850. She appears in a number of Manet's 
paintings. This is the second portrait of her in pastel. It 
was once owned by Eugene Manet, the artist's 
brother and husband of Berthe Morisot. 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Eugene Manet, the artist's brother. 
Ernest Rouart, Paris, in 1926. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Theodore Duret, Histoire de Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre, Paris, 

1902 and 1919, p. 285, no. 2. 

Theodore Duret, Manet and the French Impressionists, 

trans, by J. E. Flitch, Philadelphia, 1910, p. 263, no. 2. 

Etienne Moreau-Nelaton, Manet, Raconte par lui-meme, 

Paris, 1926, II, pp. 50, 141; fig. 234, repr. 

A. Tabarant, Manet, Histoire Catalographique, Paris, 1931, p. 447, no. 2. 

Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein, Manet, Paris, 1932, 1, p. 159, no. 312; 

II, p. 113, fig. 244, repr. 

EXHIBITION 

Cent Portraits de Femmes, Galerie Charpentier, Paris, 1950. 
Gift, 1952. 



■ ->»> : n 




HILAIRE GERMAIN EDGAR DEGAS 

(1834-1917) 



From his beginnings as a disciple of Ingres, Degas developed 
a personal style influenced by Japanese prints, Monet, and 
Impressionism. He sustained a fascination for the urban 
life around him. Academic traditions and the classicizing 
influences of Ingres yielded in Degas' art by the mid-1 860's, 
when he experimented with unusual compositions and 
seemingly casual arrangements. His earliest paintings 
concentrated on portraits and historical subjects. After 1873, 
he devoted himself to rendering the human figure, 
especially those in the theatre, ballet, and orchestras. After 
1880, he employed pastel more and more, preferring it to 
oil. While he participated in Impressionist exhibitions, he 
remained aloof from the Impressionist insistence on 
14 plein-air painting. A quiet, retiring man, his isolation 

was heightened by blindness which caused him 
to cease painting about 1908. 

DANCERS AT THE BAR. About 1889. 
Pastel on paper. I8V4 x 40 inches. 
Stamped lower left: Degas. 

Degas' interest in the ballet — its dancers, stage, and 
practice rooms — began in 1873. He was a frequent visitor 
to ballet classes, where he made many sketches of the 
performers occupied in their exercises and graceful poses. 
The distortions, strange angles, and the scintillating colors that 
Degas depicted in his pastels indicate his innovating style. 
His unique use of eccentric poses and captured movement 
display his extraordinary sense of design. This pastel is 
a study for a larger work by Degas (Lemoisne, no. 996) and is 
related to two other pastels (nos. 998 and 999). 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Estate of Edgar Degas, 1918 (Lugt 658). 
Georges Viau, Paris, to 1942. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Catalogue des Tableaux, Pastels, et dessins par Edgar Degas . . ., 
Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, l re Vente, May 6, 1918, no. 226, repr. 
Catalogue des Dessins, aquarelles, gouaches, pastels . . . 
Collection de M. Georges Viau, Hotel Drouot, Paris, Dec. 11, 1942, 
p. 28, no. 73, repr. pi. VIII. 

P. A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, Paris, 1946, III, p. 578, 
no. 997, repr.; IV, p. 113. 
Gift, 1950. 



PIERRE AUGUSTE RENOIR 

(1841-1919) 



Renoir was a prolific artist of landscapes, nudes, and 

portraits. From his beginnings as a painter of porcelain and 

fans, he became associated with the Impressionist movement 

with which he was identified for the rest of his life. He 

was one of the exhibitors in the first Impressionist exhibition, 

1874. Renoir exhibited with the Impressionists in their 

special shows and also found his portraits acceptable 

to the Salon. He maintained an appreciation for studying the 

great museum collections; in this, he was somewhat at odds 

with several Impressionists. Renoir's first taste of Impressionism 

came through Monet, with whom Renoir worked after 

1868. The Impressionist approach that depended so much on 

the purely visual effects in nature appealed to Renoir. 

To him, however, a painting's purpose was to decorate a 

wall. Its colors must be pleasant, its mood amiable. A 

painting was not a scientific experiment, for he felt that "the 

slow work of the hand makes for happiness." Painting 

was for him the act of making something physically beautiful. 

LANDSCAPE AT C AGNES. 1910. 
Oil on canvas. 21% x 25 3 A inches. 
Stamped lower right: Renoir. 

Renoir spent the last decade of his life at Cagnes in Southern 
France, where the landscape of gnarled olive trees and 
sunny fields lured him. At Cagnes, Renoir and his family 
found contentment at Les Collettes, a villa purchased in 
1903 that often figures in the late paintings. The identical 
view of this landscape appears in another painting of 
the same date, Idyll at Cagnes (Meier-Graefe, Renoir, Leipzig, 
1929, fig. 356). Renoir's crippling illness did not detract 
from painting excursions into the neighborhood even 
though brushes sometimes had to be strapped to his hands 
and wrists. Here, where the olive trees were centuries 
old, his love for landscape could be fully exploited. 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Estate of Pierre Auguste Renoir, 1919 (Lugt Supplement, 2137b). 

Pierre Renoir, the artist's son, after 1919. 

Etienne Vautheret, Lyon, to 1933. 

Hodebert, Paris. 

Private collection, Switzerland. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

L' Atelier de Renoir, published by Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1931, 

II, no. 402; plate 130, repr. 

Collection Etienne Vautheret . . . Tableaux Modernes, Hotel Drouot, 

Paris, June 16, 1933, p. 30, no. 23; p. 31, repr. 

Gift, 1962. 



PIERRE AUGUSTE RENOIR 

(1841-1919) 



BATHER. 1912. 

Oil on canvas. 25 3 A x 22 inches. 

Signed lower right: Renoir. 

For many, the zenith of Renoir's art was reached in his 
interpretation of the nude. Renoir felt that woman should be 
painted "like a beautiful fruit." At Cagnes, where Renoir 
painted for the last sixteen years of his life, the landscape 
that receded to the azure mountains on one side and 
the warm Mediterranean on the other was a perfect environment 
for his paintings of bathers or nudes. These canvases 
represent a large portion of his late works. They were never 
divorced from their outdoor setting, but became integrated 
with it in atmosphere and color. In this painting, Renoir 
evolved a pose that was used in other renderings of the same 
model, probably Gabrielle. At this time it was Renoir's 
habit to work directly on the canvas, assisted, perhaps, only 
by a few small sketches. The preparatory drawing for 
The Toledo Museum of Art Bather also dates from 
1912 (Renoir Drawings, edited by John 
Rewald, New York, 1946, no. 84). 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Maurice Gangnat, Paris, 1912-1925. 
Henri Canonne, Geneva, to 1939. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Raymond Bouyer, "Les Renoir de la collection Gangnat," 

Gazette des Beaux Arts, XI, April 1925, p. 248. 

Catalogue des Tableaux . . . collection Maurice Gangnat, 

Hotel Drouot, Paris, June 24-25, 1925, no. 88, repr. 

Catalogue des Tableaux Modernes . . . collection Henri Canonne, 

Galerie Charpentier, Paris, Feb. 18, 1939, no. 47, repr. 

Renoir Drawings, edited by John Rewald, New York, 1946, p. 23. 

EXHIBITION 

What is Modern Art?, Toledo Museum of Art, March, 1960. 
Gift, 1955. 



■■: 




AMEDEO MODIGLIANI 

(1884-1920) 



Modigliani was born in Italy, remained there until 1906, and 
spent his brief adult life in Paris. Outwardly, his life was one 
of dissipation and self-destruction. His art concentrated 
on the single theme of the human body and face, yet he 
should not be considered a portrait painter. Rather, his 
renderings were decorative inventions that resembled the actual 
sitter. When Modigliani arrived in Paris as a young man, 
the new Cubism and African art awakened Modigliani 
to a different world. After 1909, Modigliani had interludes as 
a sculptor, carving heads and torsos resembling the severe 
figures of his canvases. His excessive drinking, drug addiction, 
and self neglect fostered fitful working habits. For some 
years he produced hardly any paintings. He instigated his own 
style, a unique one that followed no particular artist. 

20 PORTRAIT OF PAUL GUILLAUME 

Oil on board. 29 ¥2 x 20 ¥2 inches. 
Signed lower right: modigliani 
Inscribed lower left: Paul Guillaume 
Inscribed lower right: Settembr 1915 

Among Modigliani's friends, such as Picasso, Gertrude Stein, 
and the dealer Zborowski, was Paul Guillaume (1891-1934), 
an art dealer and writer. He was introduced to Modigliani in 
1914 by Max Jacob, the poet. Guillaume soon began 
collecting Modigliani's paintings; in fact, he was the artist's 
only patron in 1914-1916. He also posed for at least three 
other portraits during this period (Ceroni, plates 55, 58, and 
62). In this portrait, painted in September 1915, Guillaume 
is posed in a room before a window and bookcase. Other 
portraits of him are inscribed with the sitter's name, a 
habit Modigliani often employed to identify the subject. 

EX-COLLECTION 

Paul Guillaume, Paris, 1915 - after 1929. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Arthur Pfannsteil, Modigliani, I' art et la vie, Paris, 1929, pp. 6, 18. 
Waldemar George, he grande peinture contemporaine a la collection 
Paul Guillaume, Paris, n.d. (1929), pp. 138, 142, 188, repr. 
Arthur Pfannsteil, Modigliani et son oeuvre, Paris, 1956, p. 66, no. 36. 
Ambrogio Ceroni, Amedeo Modigliani, Milan, 1958, p. 50, plate 56, 
repr. (as Paul Guillaume devant sa bibliotheque\ . 

EXHIBITION 

Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, May-June, 1929. 
Gift, 1951. 




rrvO^^"^' 



22 



HENRI MATISSE 

(1869-1954) 

As a young artist, Matisse first studied with the conservative 
painters Bouguereau and Gustave Moreau, then fell under 
the spell of Impressionism. Successively, he was influenced 
by Bonnard, Vuillard, Signac, and Cezanne. By 1905 
Matisse's interest in vivid colors, flat patterns, and distortions 
made him a leader of the Fauves movement, a group 
sneeringly dubbed the "Wild Beasts" by a critic. Matisse 
was enchanted with the Near East and North Africa 
just before World War I, then filled his canvases with Oriental 
beauties and exotic still lifes. Throughout his long career, 
he seldom strayed from the bright colors and strong shapes 
discovered in the early 1900's. His works include (besides 
paintings) some sculpture, book illustrations, and the 
interior decoration of a nuns' chapel in 
Vence, France, his last major work. 

DANCER RESTING. 1940. 
Oil on canvas. 32 x 25 V2 inches. 
Signed lower right: Henri Matisse 40. 

The last years of Matisse's life were spent on the French 
Riviera near Nice, where he found its semi-tropical 
environment conducive to his subject matter and encouraging 
to his health. By August 1940, as World War II exploded, 
Matisse was in Nice, where he painted very little 
because of an illness. 

In the 1930's, Lydia Delectorskaya became a favorite model, 
and by 1940 she was still with Matisse as secretary and 
housekeeper. Other models were available and hired, but she 
probably posed for this painting employing the subject 
of an odalisque, seductive in character and beautifully 
indolent in her Oriental surroundings. 

EX-COLLECTION 

Mr. and Mrs. Lee Ault, New York, to 1946. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

R. Frost, "Lee Ault Can Pick Them," Art News, XLIII, 

April 15-30, 1944, p. 16 (erroneously dated: 1941). 

"A Rouault from Lee Ault," Art News, XLV, July 1946, p. 18 

(mentions Dancer Resting). 

J. K. Reed, "Seven American Collectors Show Treasures at Modern 

Museum," Art Digest, XX, August 1, 1946, p. 31, repr. p. 5. 

"Ruisdael to Pissarro to Noguchi," Art News, XLIX, 

March 1950, p. 59, repr. 

Alfred H. Barr, Matisse, His Art and His Public, New York, 1951, p. 559. 

EXHIBITIONS 

Modern Paintings jrom the Lee Ault Collection, Valentine Gallery, 

New York, April 10-29, 1944, no. 29, repr. 

Paintings from New York Private Collections, Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, July 1946, no. 3. 

Matisse, Portland Art Museum, Portland, Oregon, 1952. 

Gift, 1947. 



24 



JOE JONES 

(Joseph John Jones) 
(1909-1963) 



Born in St. Louis, Jones worked as a house painter until 1931. 
His first one-man show was held in New York in 1935, 
after which the career of this self-taught artist showed signs 
of success. Mural painting and War Department 
commissions in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands occupied 
him during World War II. Before his death, he was a resident 
of Morristown, New Jersey, exhibiting in New York galleries 
and in various major American exhibitions. Jones' use of oil 
closely followed a watercolor technique of thin, flat washes. 
His near Oriental style also relied on heavy use of drawn 
lines succinctly outlining the areas of sails, masts, and figures. 

REGATTA (BARNEGAT BAY, NEW JERSEY). 1951. 

Oil on canvas. 22 x 40 inches. 
Signed lower left: Joe Jones. 

The New Jersey shore furnished subjects for Jones' paintings 
before and after his residence was established in that state. 
During the summer months he roamed the coast, where he 
painted Regatta, a view of Barnegat Bay. This large reach of 
water is formed by Island Beach Peninsula and Long Beach 
Island. It is entered from the ocean at the famous Barnegat 
Lighthouse. A lithograph (ca. 1952) similar to this subject 
is in The Toledo Museum of Art collection. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

"Reviews and Previews . . . Joe Jones," Art News, L, October 1951, p. 48. 
Toledo Museum of Art, Museum News, no. 140, December 1952, 
(p. 4, fig. 6) repr. 

EXHIBITIONS 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, Sixty-first Nebraska Art 

Association Exhibition, March 1951, no. 81. 

Toledo Museum of Art, 39th Annual Exhibition of Contemporary 

American Paintings, June 8- August 31, 1952, no. 36. 

Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, The 1952 Pittsburgh International 

Exhibition of Contemporary Painting, October 16-December 14, 1952, 

no. 128, repr. 

California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, 

Carnegie International, 1953. 

Gift, 1952. 



CHINESE, TANG DYNASTY 

(7 th-10th century) 



Among the many dynasties ruling China throughout her 
venerable history, none was more brilliant artistically than the 
T'ang period that nourished for three centuries. China's 
military and political might were never greater. Her borders 
extended to the limits of Asia, and Buddhism was established 
as the leading religion during T'ang rule. During this three 
hundred years of splendor, poetry and the arts nourished within 
a court noted for its great artists and appreciative emperors. 

OX AND CART. About 618-907 A.D. 

Clay and wood, with remains of glaze (modern yoke, shafts, and 
26 supports for cart and wheels). Ht. IIV2 inches; length I8V4 inches. 

Not only were T'ang potters extremely talented as makers of 
vessels, they were noted for their figurative shapes as well. 
During the T'ang period, the placing of sculpture and furniture 
within tombs became an extravagant habit. Families competed 
for social status determined by the number of decorative pieces 
placed in a tomb. Tomb figures of servants, dancers, animals 
and the like were symbols for human sacrifice, a practice of 
the T'ang predecessors. The real purpose of tomb furniture, 
such as this Ox and Cart, was to give assistance to the deceased. 
They were substitutions for the real animal and cart. Made 
in a two-part mold, the ox was left unglazed and only a few 
traces of pigment remain on the cart. A similar tomb sculpture 
was exhibited in Chinese Tomb Pottery Figures, Hong Kong 
University, 1953, no. C-ll. Other objects resembling it but 
with arched roofs on the carts are in the collections of the 
Seattle Art Museum, Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and 
Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Gift, 1954. 



FRENCH or FLEMISH 

(16th century) 



Feudalism, serfdom, knighthood, and walled castles conjure 
up images of Medieval life full of strife and turmoil. Art 
also flourished in the Middle Ages, largely dictated by the 
Church. The demands for religious paintings, sculpture, and 
decorative arts were great. Churches, tombs, altarpieces, 
and devotional objects all provided means for artists to 
illustrate religious precepts for an illiterate populace. To the 
educated clergy and nobles who commissioned works of 
art, such things assisted their devotion and 
showed their piety and good works. 



ST. CATHERINE. About 1500-1525. 
28 Limestone. Ht. 34 3 A inches. 



The Gothic style persisted in some areas of Europe long 
after the Middle Ages yielded to the Renaissance in certain 
countries. Grace and sensibility released 16th century 
French sculpture from the stern, hieratical poses of the 
preceding centuries. Figures became free-standing, having little 
connection with the architectural ensemble for which most 
were intended. Costumes in sculpture closely copied 
those actually worn. Without her saintly attributes, this 
sculpture might well depict a lady of the early 16th century 
garbed as she appeared in her castle's great hall. The 
limestone figure represents St. Catherine (3rd century A.D.), 
a Christian princess who saw in a vision her betrothal and 
eventual marriage to the Child Jesus — the mystical 
marriage of St. Catherine. This Saint debated paganism with 
the Roman Emperor Maximian, who imprisoned her, 
attempted her execution on a wheel of spikes, then beheaded 
her. The sword and wheel symbolize this martyrdom, the 
book her wisdom, and the diminutive man at her feet is the 
defeated Emperor. The swaying pose, facial expression, 
broad folds, and style of costume suggest a date 
early in the 16th century for this sculpture 
that was found in Beauvais, France. 

EX-COLLECTION 

William A. Gosline, Toledo, 1926-1947. 
Gift, 1947. 



Attributed to 

JEAN-BAPTISTE CARPEAUX 

(1827-1875) 



Carpeaux studied with Rude and the more conservative 
Duret before winning the coveted Prix de Rome in 1854 with 
a neo-classical subject. After that date. Carpeaux's studies 
30 in Italy were influenced by the work of Michelangelo. 

Gradually, he broke with academic-conservative traditions for 
a style expressing Impressionism in sculpture. He was 
condemned in his time by conservatives for his frankly sensual, 
voluptuous sculpture. His figures of movement and mirth, 
such as The Dance, conceived for Garnier's Opera in Paris, 
were particularly desirable as architectural decoration. 
Carpeaux's portrait busts earned him the approval of the 
Imperial family during the Second Empire. With his countryman, 
Daumier, he is considered a precursor of modern sculpture. 

BACCHUS DANCING. About 1870-1875. 
Terra cotta. Ht. 6OV2 inches. 

Carpeaux preferred working in clay to stone-cutting. Such 
large, modeled figures in terra cotta, a fired but unglazed 
clay, are typical of Carpeaux's spirited, ebullient forms. This 
figure represents the classical god of wine and fertility 
celebrating his resurrection every third year. 

EX-COLLECTIONS 

Gabriel Richou, Paris, by 1900. 
Dr. Maxime Richou, Paris, to 1953. 
Gift, 1953. 




^m^m